Jatindra Nath Das was an Indian freedom fighter who was a member of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA). He was also a part of many other Indian independence movements such as the Non-Cooperation Movement started by Mahatma Gandhi in 1921. At the age of 29, Jatindra Nath Das died after 13 days of hunger strike in Lahore jail. September 1929. Jatindra Nath Das demanded equal treatment for Indian revolutionary prisoners, as was provided to European prisoners in the Lahore Jail.
Jatindra Nath Das was born on Thursday 27 October 1904.age 24 years; at the time of death) in Calcutta, Bengal Presidency, British India. His zodiac sign was Scorpio. Soon after finishing his schooling, Jatindra Nath Das went to Vidyasagar College, Calcutta, India to pursue a bachelor’s degree in arts.
Hair Color: Black
Eye Colour: Black
parents and siblings
His father’s name is Bankim Bihari Das. His mother’s name is Suhashini Das. He had a younger brother named Kiran Das.
She was not married.
Jatindra Nath Das was born and brought up in a middle-class family in Calcutta. During his school days, he was a promising student who completed his matriculation with first class. When Jatindra Nath Das was receiving his schooling, he was inclined towards revolutionary activities. Soon after graduating from school, he joined the Bengali revolutionary group Anushilan Samiti. When Jatindra Nath Das was seventeen, in 1921, he became a part of the non-cooperation movement, which was led by Mahatma Gandhi.
Later, he joined the Bangbasi College in Calcutta to pursue a bachelor’s degree in arts. In 1925, he was arrested by the British police for his involvement in anti-British activities and lodged in the Mymensingh prison in Bangladesh. Jatindra Nath Das experienced the mistreatment of Indian revolutionary prisoners in jail by the British Government. To demand reform, Jatindra Nath Das went on a hunger strike for twenty days, after which the jail superintendent apologized to Jatindra Nath Das and accepted his demands. Soon, Das gave up his hunger strike. During this period, Das learned to make bombs from Sachindra Nath Sanyal, a renowned Indian revolutionary. On 14 June 1929, Jatindra Nath Das was again arrested by the British authorities for his involvement in the Lahore Conspiracy Case, and this time, Jatindra Nath Das was sent to Lahore Jail. In the Lahore Jail, he became disturbed by experiencing the pathetic conditions of the revolutionary Indian prisoners who were given unhygienic food to eat from the kitchen, where many rats and cockroaches were seen roaming around, and the uniforms of these Indian prisoners were very dirty. And there was no washing for many days. Indian prisoners had no facilities to read and write as it was provided to European and British prisoners. Jatindra Nath Das then decided to raise his voice against this discrimination in prisons and on 13 July 1929 he went on hunger strike. During the hunger strike of Jatindra Nath Das, British officers used to beat him up and also tried to force-feed him. Due to this forceful eating, his lungs were damaged and some parts of his body were paralyzed. The prison authorities, after monitoring his physical condition, decided to release him; But, his unconditional release was rejected by the British government.
Jatindra Nath Das died on 13 September 1929 after a 63-day hunger strike in the Lahore Jail.
Her funeral procession from Lahore Jail to Calcutta was led by Durgavati Devi, a female revolutionary freedom fighter. Thousands of Indians gathered to attend his funeral, which was led by a train. Subhash Chandra Bose received the coffin of Jatindra Nath Das at Howrah Railway Station. His coffin was carried on foot to the crematorium, two miles away from Howrah railway station. According to media sources, it was one of the largest funeral processions in Indian history with the largest gatherings. In Kanpur, Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi and Jawaharlal Nehru led the funeral procession, and Kamala Nehru led the funeral procession of Jatindra Nath Das in Allahabad. The then Viceroy of India informed his London authorities about the death of Jatindra Nath Das. He said,
Mr. Das of the Conspiracy Case, who was on hunger strike, passed away at 1 pm today, last night five hunger strikers gave up their hunger strike. Therefore, only Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt are on strike.”
A book titled “Profile of Shaheed Jatin Das” states that at the entrance of Lahore Jail, the picture of the dead body of Jatindra Nath Das was clicked by ‘The Tribune India’ newspaper on the evening of 13 September 1929, and this picture has been described. That it was decorated with garlands and flowers. It is mentioned,
After the dead hero was photographed, the beer was decorated with garlands and flowers. Jatin’s body was buried under a pile of flowers soaked in fragrant water. His head lying on a large pillow was the only skull. A bloodless face with sunken cheeks and eyeballs deep in the pockets were traces of the agony of death. It was easy to see that he had died inch by inch. ,
The picture of the dead body of Jatin, which shook the soul of the Indian people, appeared in the Tribune newspaper the day after his death and this anger of the Indians forced the British Empire to change its policies for handing over the dead bodies of the revolutionaries. Reportedly, all shops were closed from Lahore to Calcutta during the funeral procession of Jatindra Nath Das. A large number of people gathered to attend the funeral and some were seen showering coins on his dead body. Others saw these coins being collected and heard saying that they would use these coins as ornaments for their children.
Soon after the death of Jatindra Nath Das, the leaders of the Punjab Legislative Council, Mohammad Alam and Gopi Chand Bhargava, resigned from their respective positions in the party in protest against the British. Motilal Nehru adjourned the Central Assembly to protest against the mistreatment of Indian revolutionaries in prisons by the British Government. On the martyrdom of Jatindra Nath Das, Congress Party leader Jawaharlal Nehru said,
Another name has been added to the long and glorious role of Indian martyrs. Let us bow our heads and pray that we find strength to continue the struggle, no matter how long it may be and whatever the outcome, until victory is ours. ,
The martyrdom of Jatindra Nath Das was compared to the sacrifice of Dadhichi by Subhas Chandra Bose. Bose said that Dadhichi, a famous mythological yogi, sacrificed his life to kill a demon and Jatindra Nath Das died to overthrow the British Empire in India.
Facts / Trivia
- He was also called by the surname of Jatin.
- On 12 September 1929, a day before the martyrdom of Jatindra Nath Das, Muhammad Ali Jinnah gave a historic speech in which he said that the soul of a person who went on hunger strike in Lahore Jail believed in equality and justice. he told,
One who goes on hunger strike has a soul. He is influenced by that spirit and he believes in the justice of his cause.”
- Inspired by the hunger strike death of Jatindra Das in Lahore Jail, several other famous Indian freedom fighters protested against the many illegal detentions by the British government.
- Later, Cama McLean, an associate professor of South Asian and World History at the University of New South Wales in Australia, noted in her book “A Revolutionary History of Interwar India” that the British stopped handing over the bodies of Indian revolutionaries to their families. Had done it. Jatindra Nath Das’s custodial death in Lahore Jail. She wrote,
Das’s death had a major impact on nationalist politics, as depicted on the front page of The Tribune. After this the British stopped handing over the dead bodies of the revolutionaries to their families.
He further said that the funeral procession of Jatindra Nath Das created a sensation in the press as the train carrying his body was stopped at major stations to be seen by many people. She wrote,
Jatin Das’s body was handed over to the family, but the Bengal Congress took the responsibility of bringing him back to Bengal. The train stopped at major stations and many people saw the body. This created a sensation in the press and came back to Calcutta.
- During Das’s hunger strike, Jatindra Nath Das’s younger brother Kiran Das looked after him in the Lahore Jail, and was allowed by the British government.
- Later, according to Shiv Varma, who was sentenced to life imprisonment in Lahore jail and one of Jitendra Nath Das’s companions, published a book ‘Samriti’, in which Shiva Varma described the nature of Jatin Das in a grim appearance. , described as sound. Soft spoken person.
- Reportedly, when Jitendra Nath Das was on hunger strike, he never followed doctors’ advice. He even refused to take medicine from them. He also rejected the advice of famous Congress party politicians who tried to persuade Jitendra Nath Das to stop his hunger strike. However, he took the medicine at the behest of Bhagat Singh. Jatindra Nath Das was once asked by someone why he followed the instructions of Bhagat Singh. He then replied,
You don’t know how brave he is! I can never refuse his prasad.”
- Apparently, according to Jatindra Nath Das, the hunger strike was a rebellion against the British rule in India. According to conversations with his revolutionary comrades, Jatindra Nath Das found the hunger strike to be much more difficult than a gunfight. They said,
By declaring this hunger strike, we are jumping into a battle that will be difficult to fight, even harder than a gunfight. Creeping to death inch by inch is more difficult than death by bullet or death by hanging. Jumping back into the struggle would be against the dignity of the revolutionaries. It is better not to get involved in the struggle than to withdraw yourself in the middle.
- The Government of India issued a thirty paise postage stamp with the name and picture of Jatindra Nath Das to honor his sacrifice in the Indian independence movements.
- The character of ‘Jatindra Nath Das’ was portrayed in the film ‘The Legend of Bhagat Singh’ by Indian actor Amitabh Bhattacharjee in 2002.
- ‘Amar Shaheed Jatin Das’, a documentary film released in 2009, and the thirty-five minute story depicts the sacrifices made by Jatindra Nath Das during the Indian freedom struggle.
- Later, in West Bengal, in memory of Jatindra Nath Das, a statue was installed at Jatindradas Nagar to honor his sacrifices for the independence of India.
- A research paper titled ‘How Empire Mattered: Imperial Structures and Globalization in the Era of British Imperialism’ concluded in its analysis that the death of Jatindra Nath Das due to a prolonged hunger strike resulted in resistance against illegal detention by the British Government. , and this led to many more hunger strikes by Indian revolutionaries in Deoli and Andaman Islands. It further analyzed that the British government found it difficult to justify the illegal arrest of thousands without trial. It is mentioned,
Jatin Das’s hunger strike in 1929 which resulted in his death was a significant moment in the resistance against illegal captivity; The hunger strikes in Deoli in 1932 and the Andaman Islands in 1934 and 1937 further aggravated the problem of public relations, which the colonial government faced in justifying why they were keeping thousands of people in jail without trial.”